BENISEED DEVELOPED TECHNOLOGIES/INNOVATIONS
The developed technologies in Beniseed research include the following
- 0VARIETAL DEVELOPMENT
Five out of the seven improved varieties of Beniseed under cultivation in Nigeria were developed by NCRI. The varieties and their yield attributes are as follow;
|S/No||Names of the varieties||Original names||Days to maturity||Seed colour||Seed Size||
|Oil yield %|
|2||NCRIBEN 02M||Type-4||102-115||Light brown||Medium||550-600||45|
- 1Purpose of the developed technology
The purpose of the varietal development is to create biodiversity of different cultivar that will be suitable across various agro-ecological zones where Beniseed is being grown.
- 2Location/Areas where the technology is adopted
All the developed varieties are available in all the Beniseed growing areas of Nigeria. The producing states now include Adamawa, Bauchi, Benue, Borno, Gombe, Jigawa, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara and Nasarawa states. Others are Niger, Plateau, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara, Ogoja in Cross Rivers, Ondo and Northern parts of Edo, Ogun and Enugu states.
With the availability of the improved varieties, the production per unit area among individual farmers has increased and this translates to increase income at farmer’s level. However, at the national level, Beniseed being an export crop increase the country foreign exchange earnings. It is second after cocoa in Nigeria in terms of volume of export.
- 0Agronomic improvement of production system
Various improved production practices has been developed and these include the following
- Row planting system
- Weeds control and fertilization system
- Harvesting and post harvest technology
2.1 Purpose of the developed technology
The purpose was to improve production practices and to remove the drudging associated with the local production system especially weed control.
2.2 Location/Areas where the technology is adopted
Showcase in the Institute adopted villages
Demonstrated across the growing areas
At the ADPs for onward transfer to targeted farmers
- Increase in production per unit area. Farmers can now obtain 500 Kg/ha and above.
3.0 PROCEDURES ON SESAME OIL EXTRACTION
Sesame seeds contains 40-60% oil. Sesame oil is stable due to the presence of natural antioxidants, hence long shelf life. Sesame oil has many uses which spans across different field of application. It is used by the cosmetic industry for cosmetic products and pharmaceutical industry for medicinal purposes. It is also used for making soap and paint, as well as cooking. The cake can be used as flour in pastries, cooking soups and as animal feed.
Steps in extraction of sesame oil
The seeds are first cleaned and sorted to remove impurities. The seeds are then washed to remove any particulate, then dehulled and dried. Dehulling removes the anti-nutritional factors present in the seeds and improved the taste of the oil.
Method 1: Solvent extraction
The cleaned and dehulled sesame seeds should be grounded and the oil extracted using soxhlet apparatus with n-hexane as the solvent. The hexane extracts should be filtered through lipid-free filter paper and the solvents removed by distillation at 80°C. The extracted lipids should be stored in a container.
Method 2: Hot Water Flotation
The cleaned and dehulled sesame seed should be ground to a paste and heated to 80-90°C for 15 minutes. Enough boiling water should then be added to suspend the ground seed on stirring. The mixture is boiled while stirring for 15 minutes. After cooling the upper oily layer is separated and dried by heating to remove any water that might still remain in the oil. The sesame oil is kept in a container.
Method 3: Machine press
Crude sesame oil
After the basic cleaning to remove impurities in sesame seed, simple oil cold press machine is used to grind the sesame seeds and the oil will be extracted and filtered.
Roasted sesame oil
Cleaned and dehulled sesame seeds are roasted. Simple oil cold press machine is used to grind the seeds and the oil extracted is filtered.
Method 4: Manual Method
The cleaned and dehulled seeds are roasted for 10-15 minutes and grounded to a paste. The paste is being turned continually and vigorously while small amounts of hot water is added to cream out the oil. The oil is decanted and filtered, after which it is heated to dry the water present.
PRODUCTION OF SESAME BLACK SOAP
The presence of phytochemicals such as lignans, polyphenols, tocopherols and other antioxidants confers antimicrobial activity on sesame plant, seeds and oil. Hence black soap made purely from sesame oil and sesame straw ash extract has antifungal effect and it is cheaper, safer and easier than the synthetic antiseptic soaps in the market that may have adverse health effects after prolonged use.
Materials required: Beniseed oil, beniseed straw, sieve or perforated container, container, water and source of heat.
- Burn beniseed plant straw into ash.
- Half-fill a perforated container or sieve with the ash and top-up with water.
- Collect the dripping filtrate into a container until full.
- Pour back the filtrate into the sieve to re-extract.
- Repeat step 4 above two or more times to obtain a concentrated/strong extract (pH 10.5 to 12.5).
- Pour the oil into a container and heat.
- Add extract to the boiling oil in the ratio of 1:4 (i.e.1 part of oil to 4 parts of extract).
- Continue heating and stirring for about 45 minutes until the mixture begins to solidify.
- Remove from fire, allow to cool, dry and harden.
- Mould and cut into desired shapes and sizes.
- Package well in beautiful wrappers or well designed packs.
BENISEED ASH EXTRACT LAUNDARY SOAP
In conventional soap making, soda ash (sodium carbonate) is a major ingredient which can be replaced with beniseed straw ash extract, therefore reducing the cost of production.
Materials required: Beniseed straw ash extract, caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), vegetable oil (preferably palm kernel oil-PKO), plastic container, colorant and perfume (optional).
- Prepare ash extract as in above.
- Prepare 40% sodium hydroxide solution by dissolving 40g of sodium hydroxide in 100mls of water in a plastic container and leave over night.
- Mix the ash extract, sodium hydroxide solution and vegetable oil in the ratio of 2:1:3.
- Add colorant and perfume if desired and mix thoroughly.
- Allow to stand to solidify and cut into desired shapes and sizes. Alternatively, pour the molten soap into moulds and allow to solidify and harden.
- Package well.
USES OF SESAME IN FOOD SYSTEMS
Sesame is an oleaginous legume (41.78 to 59.00% lipid composition) with protein content of 19.10 to 30.30%, thus having higher protein content than beef (16.9%). Sesame protein has sufficient levels of all the essential amino acids that can meet the WHO’s Recommended Daily Intakes (RDIs) with the exception of lysine which can however be complemented by cereals. Thus the formulation of composite flours using the defatted sesame and cereals and the incorporation of sesame or its products such as dadawa into traditional food systems will go a long way in alleviating the problems of protein malnutrition especially amongst children and women.
The occurrence of high levels of cis- fatty acids such as linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids coupled to high levels of phytosterols makes sesame oil very heart-friendly ,hence it can lower blood pressure, blood cholesterol levels, risks of cardio-vascular diseases and some forms of cancers. With its low carbohydrate content of 4.33 to 17.90% and being a legume, sesame seeds can be rightly classified as a low Glycemic Index (GI) food, hence a right diet of choice for the diabetic patients.
BENISEED MILK PREPARATION
- Materials required: Dehulled seeds, clean water, muslin cloth, sugar, flavor and spices (optional).
- Soak the dehulled seeds in clean water overnight.
- Drain and cook the seeds for about 20 minutes.
- Mill or grind the cooked seeds into paste.
- Add clean water to the paste (2 parts of water to 1 part of paste) and mix thoroughly.
- Sieve through muslin cloth.
- Add sugar, flavor or spices to taste as desired (the residue can be used as animal feed).
PREPARATION OF BENISEED CONDIMENT ( DADAWA)
The use of sesame seeds or the cake resulting from oil extraction for the production of dadawa has an added advantage over the common raw materials such as locust beans, soybeans or castor seeds that are traditionally used for that purpose, by having a shorter cooking time of about one hour compared to about 14 hours (overnight) required for locust beans. This is very important in reducing the cost of production, hence maximizing the profit for the processors, as well as protecting the environment from desertification and pollution as firewood is the sole source of heat in the rural areas.
Materials required: Dehulled raw seeds, dehulled roasted seeds or cake (residual meal from oil extraction), container, salt, water, mortar and banana leaves.
- Cook the seeds or cake for about 1 hour until tender.
- Drain the cooked seeds or cake.
- Put into a container lined with banana leaves.
- Sprinkle little salt on cooked seeds or cake and cover with leaves and lid.
- Keep in warm place for 3 to 5 days to ferment.
- Pound the fermented product (dadawa).
- Cut and mold into desired shapes and sizes.
- Use immediately, sundry and keep for future use.
- Package the dry product for sale.
PREPARATION OF BENISEED CANDY
Materials required: Dehulled seeds, sugar, lime juice, water, container and source of heat.
- Dissolve about 20g of sugar in 120mls of water and heat on fire.
- Add 10mls of lime juice to the boiling sugar solution and stir.
- Add about 150g of beniseeds and continue to stir.
- Continue heating and stirring until all the water is evaporated.
- Pour onto a plate or any clean flat surface to cool and harden.
- Cut into desired shapes and sizes.
PREPARATION OF BENISEED VEGETABLE SOUP
Materials required: Grinded dehulled sesame seeds or sesame cake, meat/fish, seasonings, oil, water, vegetables and salt.
- Pour water (about 250mls) into the pot on fire.
- Add oil and seasonings, fish or meat and boil for about 30 minutes.
- Add about 120g of grinded beniseed and salt (to taste) and cook for about 10 minutes.
- Finally add the vegetable and cook for further 5 minutes.
- Remove and serve hot.
PREPARATION OF BENISEED BREAD
Materials required: Beniseed flour, wheat flour, yeast, butter, sugar, salt, water and oven.
- Mix together 90g of wheat flour, 30g of beniseed flour, 20g of butter, 40g of sugar and 0.3g of salt.
- Add 1g of yeast powder to 10mls warm water and mix.
- Pour yeast solution into the flour mixture and mix thoroughly.
- Knead the dough thoroughly for about 5 minutes.
- Keep dough in a warm place or cupboard for about 20 minutes to 1 hour to proof.
- Re-knead and cut the dough into desired sizes and shapes, put into oiled baking pans and allow to proof for about 20 minutes.
- 7)Bake in the oven at about 170oc for 20 to 30 minutes or until the crust becomes golden brown in colour.
PREPARATION OF BENISEED DOUGHNUT AND CHIN-CHIN
Doughnut and chin –chin are prepared from the same ingredients and procedure, the only difference is their shapes and sizes.
Materials required: Beniseed flour, wheat flour, baking powder, vegetable oil, sugar, salt, water, frying pan and source of heat.
- Mix 100g of wheat flour with 35g of beniseed flour.
- Add 1.5g of baking powder; salt and sugar as desired and mix thoroughly.
- Add about 90mls of water, mix and stir.
- Cut into different shapes and sizes.
- Fry in oil until the products become golden brown in colour.
PREPARATION OF BENISEED BUNS
Materials required: As in above.
Preparation: As in above except the volume of water used which in this case is 130mls.
PREPARATION OF BENISEED CAKE
Materials required: Beniseed flour, wheat flour, sugar, baking powder, water, milk, butter and eggs.
- Add 70g of sugar to 30g of melted butter.
- Add 3 eggs and 50g of milk and mix gradually.
- Add 150g of wheat flour, 150g of beniseed flour, 5g of baking powder to the mixture and remix.
- Bake at about 170oc for about 15 minutes in the oven.
PREPARATION OF BENISEED BISCUITS
Materials required: Beniseed flour, maize flour, wheat flour, sugar, butter, baking powder and eggs.
- Add 100g of sugar to 50g of melted butter.
- Add 2 eggs to the mixture until it becomes fluffy.
- Add 200g of beniseed flour, 100g of maize flour, 100g of wheat flour and 10g of baking powder to the mixture.
- Mix together thoroughly and gradually until the mixture becomes stiff.
- Cut into desired shapes and sizes.
- Bake at 204oc in the oven for about 25 minutes or until the colour becomes golden brown.
- Inadequate and untimely funding of the general research and extension activities.
- Inadequate manpower to cover some aspect of research activities
- Need for continuous and refresher training of researchers and technical staff
- Inadequate machineries and equipments for research activities